13 yıl 1 ay önce - 13 yıl 1 ay önce #914 Yazan: ruhsan
Patulin, ruhsan tarafından oluşturuldu

What is it? How is it related to apples? Is is harmful?

Patulin is a mycotoxin (mold toxin) produced from a number of molds such as Penicillium and Aspergillus. It has been found in moldy fruits, vegetables, grains and other foods, however, the major sources of contamination are apples and apple products.

There are no documented cases of human illness linked to patulin, but as a precautionary measure, the FDA and the World Health Organization have set maximum allowable concentrations of patulin (50 milligrams per liter, or 50 parts per billion) in apple juice, cider, and apple products. Patulin has been studied for carcinogenicity in rats and mice and in only one study was there a statistically significant increase of tumor incidence in the treated animals. In that study, the tumor formed at the point of the subcutaneous injections. Cancer experts agree this alone is not sufficient evidence that patulin is a carcinogenic mycotoxin. In studies, most of the patulin found in the rats was eliminated within 48 hours and 98% was gone within 7 days.

When eating or cooking, one can visibly look over the apple for those with rot or insect/bird damage, but what about when drinking apple juice or cider?

Alcoholic fermentation of fruit juices destroys patulin. Therefore, fermented products such as cider or vinegars will not contain patulin as long as apple juice was not used as an additive post-fermentation. Pasteurization does not eliminate patulin so products pasteurized are not any better of a deterrent than products not pasteurized.

Juice and cider makers are well aware of patulin and take steps throughout the apple gathering and processing steps to minimize the level in its products. Unfortunately, the main test for patulin is a liquid chromatographic test that has to be conducted offsite. This new finding, spoken of in the related news article, is a very promising discovery in the development of a quick and accurate measure for patulin. Having an easy to use testing process available onsite a processing plant can make sure any apple products with abnormal levels of patulin don't reach the consumer.

What steps can you take if you plan to make your own apple products?
Do not use fallen apples (grounders).
Store apples in a cool environment. Those stored in warm, humid locations are more likely to contain increased patulin levels, even if those conditions were experienced for a short period of time. If storing apples, check the apples regularly for any signs of rot or mold and remove those apples immediately.
As much as possible, remove or trim partly decayed apples and wash fruit immediately before pressing.
Wash equipment carefully after use.
As a grower of trees, what can you do to reduce the possibility of patulin in your apples?
During the dormant season, remove and destroy all diseased wood and decayed fruits.
Prune trees to allow good air movement through the tree and light penetration into the tree.
Control pests and diseases which cause the fruit rot or allow entry sites for patulin-producing molds -- canker, bull's eye rot, codling moth, winter moth, fruit tree tortix, and sawfly are examples.
Wet weather around petal fall and harvest increase the risk of rot. Apply a fungicide to prevent spore germination and fungal growth.

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