Catering Hygiene

13 yıl 2 hafta önce #571 Yazan: ruhsan
Catering Hygiene, ruhsan tarafından oluşturuldu

Most people carry some type of food poisoning organism at one time or another, and food handlers have a moral and legal responsibility to observe high standards of personal cleanliness to ensure that they don't contaminate food.
Hands and Skin
As the hands are in direct contact with food, they are the main route for transferring food poisoning bacteria. Hands must be kept very clean at all times by washing thoroughly in hot water with liquid soap. Efficient drying of hands, which is also important, may be achieved by using disposable towels, hot air dryers or continuous roller towels.
Food handlers must wash their hands regularly throughout the working day and especially:
(1) after visiting the W.C.;
(2) on entering the food room and before handling any food or equipment;
(3) in between handling raw and cooked food;
(4) after combing the hair;
(5) after eating, smoking or blowing the nose;
(6) after handling waste food or refuse.
As fingernails may harbour bacteria, they must be kept short and clean. Nail varnish may contaminate food and should not be used. Licking the fingers before picking up sheets of wrapping paper is a particularly bad habit. Nails should not be bitten.
The nose, mouth and ears
Up to forty per cent of adults carry staphylococci in the nose and mouth. Coughs and sneezes can carry droplet infection for a considerable distance and persons with bad colds should not handle open food. Disposable single-use paper tissues are preferable to handkerchiefs. Picking or scratching the nose is not acceptable.
As the mouth is likely to harbour staphylococci, food handlers should not eat sweets, chew gum, taste food with the finger or an unwashed spoon or blow into glasses to polish them. Apart from being aesthetically unacceptable, spitting can obviously result in food contamination and is illegal.
Discharges from the ears, eyes and nose may contaminate food and employees must report these ailments to their supervisor. Medical clearance to start work will normally be required.
Cuts, Boils, Whitlows and Septic Spots
Cuts, spots and sores provide an ideal place for bacterial multiplication. To prevent contamination of food by harmful bacteria and blood these lesions should be

completely covered by waterproof dressings, preferably coloured blue or green to aid detection if they became detached. Cuts on fingers may need the extra protection of waterproof fingerstalls. Waterproof dressings will also assist in preventing cuts going septic.
Jewellery and Perfume
Food handlers should not wear earrings, watches, jewelled rings or brooches, as they harbour dirt and bacteria. Furthermore, stones or small pieces of metal may end up in the food and result in a customer complaint.
Strong-smelling perfume should not be worn by food handlers, as it may taint foods, especially those with a high fat content.
The Hair
Hair is constantly falling out and, along with dandruff, can result in contamination of food. Furthermore, the scalp often contains harmful bacteria and must be shampooed regularly. Food handlers should wear suitable head covering which completely encloses the hair. Hair-nets worn under hats are recommended. Combing of hair and adjustments of head covering should only take place in cloakrooms and should not be carried out whilst wearing protective clothing, as hairs may end up on the shoulders and then in the product.
It is illegal to use snuff and tobacco, including cigarettes, pipes or cigars, in food rooms or whilst handling open food. Not only is this to prevent cigarette ends and ash contaminating food but also because:
(1) people touch their lips whilst smoking and they may transfer harmful bacteria to food;
(2) smoking encourages coughing and droplet infection;
(3) cigarette ends contaminated with saliva are placed on working surfaces;
(4) an unpleasant environment may be created for non-smokers.
Protective Clothing
All food handlers should wear clean, washable, light-coloured protective clothing, preferably without external pockets. Protective garments should be appropriate for the work being carried out and should completely cover ordinary clothing. Jumper and shirt sleeves must not protrude and, if short-sleeved overalls are worn, only clean forearms must be visible.
Staff must be aware that protective clothing is worn to protect the food from risk of contamination and not to keep their clothes clean. Dust, pet hairs and woollen fibres are just a few of the contaminants carried on ordinary clothing.
Outdoor clothing and personal effects must not be brought into food rooms, unless stored in suitable lockers.

General Health and Reporting of Illness
Food handlers should be in good health in all aspects from oral hygiene to general fitness. Any food handlers suffering from diarrhoea, vomiting or food-borne infection must not handle food. They must notify their supervisor who must contact the local authority so that environmental health officers can carry out investigations. Food handlers who have consumed a meal known to have caused food poisoning or live in the same household as a confirmed case or have suffered from diarrhoea or vomiting whilst abroad should also report to the supervisor. Food handlers who excrete food poisoning organisms must not resume food handling duties without medical clearance.
Persons with skin infections, sores, heavy colds and ear or eye discharge should be excluded from food production, until medical clearance has been obtained.
Hygiene Education
All food handlers must receive the appropriate food hygiene education to ensure that they are aware of the dangers of poor food hygiene and so that they have the knowledge to break the chain of events resulting in outbreaks of food poisoning.
Dry-Food Stores
Rooms used for the storage of dried and canned foods should be dry, cool, well-lit, ventilated, vermin-proof and kept clean and tidy. Food should be stored away from the walls and pipes affected by condensate and off the floor on suitable shelves such as tubular stainless steel racks, or in mobile bins. Spillages should be cleared away promptly. All goods should be inspected before placing in storage. Problems encountered include soiled delivery trays, infestations, damaged and leaking cartons, rusty cans and out-of-date stock. If possible, fruit and vegetables should be stored in dry, cool, well-ventilated areas, preferably separate from other food. Fruit should be examined regularly as mould spreads rapidly.
Canned Foods
The risk from canned foods is very small compared with the number produced and this safety record will continue if:
(1) Blown cans are not used;
(2) Badly-dented, seam damaged, holed or rusty cans are rejected;
(3) Stock rotation is carried out.
The Shelf-Life of Canned Foods
rhubarb, pasteurized solid meat packs (refrigerated) 9

fruit juice, prunes, milk products 12
new potatoes, blackberries, raspberries, plums 18
vegetables, baked beans, soups, ready-meals 24
solid -pack cold meat products and fish in oil 60
After the above times, the food will not present a health risk but there may be changes in colour, texture and flavour.
The Storage of Perishable Food
High-risk perishable foods may be contaminated by harmful bacteria which can multiply to dangerous levels if not stored under refrigeration.
The recent trend to remove additives means that some foods must now be stored under refrigeration when previously they didn't need to be, for examples, opened bottles of tomato sauce.
Packing and Stock Rotation
Refrigerators must not be overloaded.
Hot Food
Hot food must never be placed directly into a refrigerator as this will raise the temperature of food already being stored.
Contamination and Covering of Food
Raw food must always be kept apart from high-risk food. Separate refrigerators are preferred, although, if in the same unit, the raw food must always be placed at the bottom. Food should be covered to prevent drying out, cross-contamination and absorption of odour.
Open Cans of Food
To avoid the acid attack on opened and part-used cans, they should not be stored in refrigerators, especially such food as fruit, fruit juice or tomatoes. The unused contents should be emptied into a suitable container, such as a covered plastic bowl.
Staff Training and Responsibilities
All food handlers must receive training on the correct use of the refrigerator, and in particular on keeping the door open for minimum amounts of time. The temperature of refrigerated deliveries should be checked on arrival.
Defrosting and Cleaning

Defrosting and cleaning should be carried out frequently in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Units which defrost automatically should still be cleaned at least weekly. Bicarbonate of soda (1 tablespoon to a gallon of water) may be used, but perfumed cleaning agents must not.
Thawing of Frozen Food
Most food taken from the freezer can be cooked immediately, but poultry and large joints must be completely thawed before cooking. The manufacturer's instructions should always be followed. Thawing of raw meat/poultry must take place in an area entirely separate from other foods which may be exposed to risk of contamination from thawed liquid. This area must never be used for cooked food which is cooling prior to refrigeration.
Rules for handling Frozen Poultry
(1) keep separate from other foods;
(2) thaw completely in a cool room. Poultry will be ready for cooking when the body is pliable, the legs are flexible and the body cavity is free from ice crystals;
(3) remove giblets;
(4) once thawed, keep in the refrigerator and cook within twenty-four hours;
(5) cook thoroughly and cook the stuffing separately;
(6) all utensils and surfaces used for the preparation of raw meat and poultry should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before being used for high-risk food.
(7) eat straight after cooking or, if the bird is to be carved cold, cool it quickly and store in the refrigerator. As with all meats refrigerated storage is essential within one and a half hours;
(8) avoid unnecessarily handling of cooked bird.
Stock Rotation
Satisfactory rotation of stock, to ensure that older food is used first, is essential to avoid spoilage. Stock rotation applies to all type of food. Daily checks should be made on short-life perishable food stored in refrigerators, whereas weekly examination of other foods may suffice.
Stock which is undisturbed for long periods will encourage rodent and insect infestations. Good stock rotation has the added advantage of assisting in the maintenance of the correct levels of stock.
Stock rotation has been much easier since the advent of open-date coding but some products do not require a \"use-by\" date and, in these cases, food handlers should adopt their own code to identify the date of delivery. Remember the rule: \"First in, first out\".
Several methods of preservation are used to prolong the storage life of food by preventing bacteria from multiplying, for example, canning, drying, freezing, heat treatment, vacuum packing and the use of salt or sugar.

1. ALWAYS wash your hands before handling food and after using the toilet.
2. TELL your boss at once of any skin, nose, throat or bowel trouble.
3. ENSURE cuts and sores are covered with waterproof dressings.
4. KEEP yourself clean and wear clean clothing.
5. DO NOT SMOKE in a food room. It is illegal and dangerous. Never cough or sneeze over food.
6. CLEAN as you go. Keep all equipment and surfaces clean.
7. PREPARE raw and cooked food in separate areas. Keep food covered and either refrigerated or piping hot.
8. KEEP your hands off food as far as possible.
9. ENSURE waste food is disposed of properly. Keep the lid on the dustbin and wash your hands after putting waste in it.
10. TELL your supervisor if you cannot follow the rules. DO NOT BREAK THE
Soiling of surfaces and equipment in unavoidable in all food businesses. It is essential that such residues are not allowed to accumulate to levels which expose food to risk of contamination. Removal of food residues, dirt and grease is the process of cleaning.
The Reasons for Cleaning
(1) to remove matter on which bacteria would grow, thus reducing risk of food poisoning and spoilage;
(2) to allow disinfection* of specific equipment and surfaces;
(3) to remove materials which would encourage pest infestations;
(4) to reduce the risk of foreign matter contamination;
(5) to ensure a pleasant and safe working environment;
(6) to promote a favourable image to customers.
Energy in Cleaning
Cleaning is the application of energy to a surface, with the intention of removing dirt and grease.
Energy is applied as:

physical, for example, scrubbing; heat, for example, hot water; chemical, for example, detergent.**
Improving chemical energy and increasing heat will reduce the amount of physical energy required.
After cleaning, disinfectants*** are used to destroy bacteria that remain. Hot water, around 82oC, steam and bleach are the commonest disinfectants. The water must be changed as frequently as necessary.
* Disinfection - the reduction of micro-organisms to a level that is safe and which will
not cause premature food spoilage.
** Detergent - a chemical used to remove grease, dirt and food particles.
*** Disinfectant - a chemical used for disinfection.
Effective Cleaning
To be effective, cleaning must be planned. A schedule which stipulates the frequency, method of cleaning, the amount and type of chemical to use and the person responsible, must be drawn up and implemented.
Staff must be trained to \"clean as they go\" and they must always have regard to the provision of health and safety. Suitable protective clothing must be worn and the chemical manufacturer's instructions must always be followed. Some chemicals can be very dangerous if mixed. Open food must not be exposed to risk of contamination during cleaning.
The Cleaning Procedure
Cleaning and disinfection normally consists of six basic stages:
(1) pre-clean: remove excess soil by sweeping, wiping or pre-rinsing;
(2) main clean: loosening of the surface grease and dirt using a detergent;
(3) rinse: removal of loose dirt and detergent;
(4) disinfection: destroying micro-organisms using, for example, bleach;
(5) final rinse: removal of disinfectant;
(6) drying: preferably natural by evaporating dry.
In light -soil conditions the pre-clean may be combined with the main clean. If air drying is not possible, single-use paper towels or a clean, dry cloth should be used.
Double-Sink Washing
Although the use of mechanical dishwashers and glasswashers is becoming more common, double-sink washing is recommended when suitable dishwashing machines are not available. The following procedure should be followed:
(1) Remove any heavy or loose soil scraping and rinsing in cold water;
(2) place articles in the first sink in detergent solution at 50oC to 60oC, scrub with a

nylon brush and/or wipe with a clean cloth to loosen dirt residues. Rubber gloves will be required. Cool or dirty water should be replaced;
(3) re-immerse in the first sink to wash off loosened dirt;
(4) place articles in the second sink to rinse off chemical residues;
(5) leave for 30 seconds at 82oC to achieve disinfection;
(6) remove the articles, allow to drain and air dry on a clean, disinfected surface. After drying, store in a clean place free from contamination.<br><br>Düzenleyen: ruhsan, :: 11/09/2007 12:21

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